Das Herz des Königs

Das Herz des Königs ist ein Roman der deutschen Schriftstellerin Viola Alvarez aus dem Jahr 2003. Mit dem bei der Verlagsgruppe Lübbe erschienenen Werk feierte die Autorin ihr Debüt.
Der Roman erzählt in Form einer fiktiven Autobiographie das Leben von Marke, dem König von Cornwall. Durch die ungewöhnliche Perspektivenwahl und Figurendarstellung verhandelt der Roman den in der europäischen Erzähltradition verhafteten Tristan und Isolde-Stoff neu.
Als die bisher einzige Bearbeitung, welche die Geschichte von Tristan und Isolde aus der Innensicht Markes schildert, steht Das Herz des Königs an einer herausragenden Position der beinahe tausendjährigen Rezeptionsgeschichte dieses Stoffes.

Das Buch beginnt mit König Marke, der bewegungsunfähig im Bett liegt und sich in Rückblicken an sein Leben erinnert.
In einer entbehrungsreichen Kindheit wird Marke auf das schwierige Leben als König von Cornwall vorbereitet. Seine Eltern schicken ihn zu Verwandten in die Bretagne, wo er lernt, zu kämpfen und zu töten. Als er als 21-Jähriger in seine Heimat zurückkehrt, ist das Land von kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen zerrüttet. Trotz der katastrophalen Lage verweigert seine Mutter, ihm die Herrschaft über Cornwall zu übergeben. Marke gelingt es, den wichtigsten Berater seiner Mutter, den opportunistischen und machthungrigen Majordomus de Zwyyntek, auf seine Seite zu ziehen. Er gesteht ihm und dessen Sohn einen lebenslangen Anspruch auf die einflussreiche Stellung als sein persönlicher Berater zu. Mit ihrer Hilfe gelingt es ihm, seine Mutter vom Hof zu locken, in ein Kloster zu verbannen und die Macht zu übernehmen.
Nachdem er seine Fähigkeiten als König unter Beweis gestellt hat, stimmt er dem Vorschlag des Majordomus zu, eine politisch motivierte Ehe einzugehen. Um den Frieden in seinem Land zu sichern, ist Marke bereit, sich durch eine Heirat mit dem schlimmsten Feind Cornwalls, Irland, zu verbünden.
Da die irische Königin nicht verfügbar ist, fällt die zweite Wahl auf deren Tochter, Isolde. Markes Ziehsohn Tristan fährt nach Irland, um ihr die Brautwerbung zu überbringen. Auf der Heimreise schlafen die beiden miteinander. Als Isolde in Cornwall eintrifft, empfängt Marke sie und ihr Gefolge am Hafen. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt trifft Marke, der die Heirat mit der blutjungen, einfältigen Isolde ohnehin als eine Zumutung empfindet, zum ersten Mal auf Brangaene. Von der klugen und hübschen Dienerin seiner zukünftigen Frau beeindruckt, bleibt er dennoch seinen politischen Überlegungen treu und heiratet Isolde.
Nun nehmen die tragischen Geschehnisse ihren Verlauf. Marke bemerkt die Liebe zwischen Isolde und Tristan. Er unternimmt jedoch nichts gegen den Betrug, da er selbst nur noch Augen für Brangaene hat. De Zwyyntek entdeckt die Affäre und nutzt sie, um seine eigenen Machtansprüche zu verwirklichen. Unter ungeklärten Umständen verschwindet Brangaene. Marke verfällt nach diesem Verlust in eine Starre und muss die Herrschaftsgeschäfte dem Majordomus überlassen.
Als sich Marke kaum noch Hoffnungen auf eine Besserung seines Zustandes macht, wendet sich das Blatt: Brangaene, inzwischen Nonne, kehrt zurück, entsandt von ihrem Kloster St. Materiana, um den kranken König zu heilen. Als Marke sie mit Fragen überhäuft, warum sie ins Kloster gegangen sei, entdeckt er, dass Brangaene stumm ist.
Alle Chancen, jemals zu erfahren, was passiert ist, scheinen verloren, doch die Geschichte nimmt eine unverhoffte Wendung. Brangaene kann schreiben. Sie berichtet Marke ihre Geschichte auf einem Stück Pergament. De Zwyyntek ließ sie verschleppen und ihr die Zunge herausschneiden und verbannte sie in das Kloster.
Glücklich, wieder mit Brangaene vereint zu sein, stirbt Marke mit Blick auf das Meer. Als der Majordomus entdeckt, dass der König über seinen Verrat informiert ist, ermordet er Brangaene hinterrücks und wirft die Leichen des Liebespaares aus dem Fenster ins Meer hinab. Ein langjähriger Freund von Marke, der Bischof von Salisbury, kommt kurz nach der Mordtat an den Hof. De Zwyyntek gesteht sein Verbrechen und wird hingerichtet. Zur Erinnerung an Marke und Brangaene füllt der Bischof eine Amphore mit Meerwasser und lässt sie mit Zinn versiegeln. Das Land Cornwall ist nun herrscherlos, Marke und Brangaene sind miteinander im Tod vereint.
Die Erzählung von Tristan und Isolde ist einer der am häufigsten bearbeiteten epischen mittelalterlichen Stoffe europäischen Ursprungs. Als wesentlichste Überlieferungsstränge gelten die version primitive Eilharts von Oberg sowie die version courtoise, im deutschsprachigen Raum begründet durch Gottfried von Straßburg.
Viola Alvarez greift in ihrem Roman beide Versionen auf, worauf sie auch explizit hinweist:
Sie stellt sich selbst damit in die Tradition einer jahrhundertelangen Rezeptionsgeschichte. Ihr Umgang mit dem Tristan und Isolde-Stoff ist dabei gekennzeichnet durch einen psychologisierenden Zugang, welcher eine konsequente Demontage der mystifizierten Tristanliebe nach sich zieht.
Im Mittelpunkt von Das Herz des Königs steht aufgrund dieses Anspruchs der Demontage nicht das Liebespaar Tristan und Isolde, sondern Marke. Diese Verschiebung des Fokus auf Marke ist nicht neu, sie findet sich bereits in Georg Kaisers Drama König Hahnrei aus dem Jahr 1913. Allerdings zeigt Alvarez den König erstmals aus der Innensicht und entlarvt im Zuge ihrer Erzählung Isolde und Tristan als armselige Witzfiguren. Sie räumen den Platz des idealen Liebespaares für Marke und Brangaene, deren Liebe jedoch eine wesentlich reifere und weniger perfekte Partnerschaft begründet als die überhöhte, absolute Tristanminne.
Das Herz des Königs stellt demnach eine innovative Variation des Tristan und Isolde-Stoffes dar, die einzigartig ist in der bisherigen Rezeptionsgeschichte. Auf Alvarez‘ Umgang mit den Quellen, Motiven und Figuren wird im Folgenden näher eingegangen.
Als Quellen für Das Herz des Königs lassen sich vorrangig Eilharts von Oberg Tristrant, Gottfrieds von Straßburg Tristan sowie in geringerem Ausmaß Richard Wagners Oper Tristan und Isolde ausmachen.
Mit diesen Quellen verfährt Alvarez auf vier verschiedene Arten:
Besonders auffallend ist, dass Alvarez alle mythisch-magischen Aspekte ihrer Quellen verwirft. So verzichtet sie beispielsweise auf den Drachenkampf und auf das Gottesurteil. Daraus ergibt sich der Effekt einer weitführenden Entromantisierung des Stoffes, der über die Ebene der Paarbeziehung hinausgeht.
Zum Teil begründen sich die Änderungen auch in der Umkehrung der Perspektive: Die Listen zur Entdeckung des Ehebruchs müssen geradezu entfallen oder parodiert werden – sie wären psychologisch nicht schlüssig, ist Marke bei Alvarez doch keineswegs ein eifersüchtiger Ehemann, sondern liebt Isolde einfach nicht.
Besonders deutlich wird das Ziel der Entromantisierung von Tristan und Isolde in Alvarez‘ Gestaltung der Motive und Figuren.
Die folgende vergleichende Übersicht steht exemplarisch für eine Vielzahl der von Alvarez aufgegriffenen Motive.
„’lameir’ sprach sî, ‚daz ist mîn nôt, lameir das swaeret mir den muot, lameir ist, daz mir leide tuot.“
„In des Wonnemeeres wogendem Schwall, in der Duft-Wellen tönendem Schall, in des Welt-Atems wehendem All –
ertrinken –
versinken –
unbewußt –
höchste Lust!“
„Wenn sie kam, um bei mir zu sein, hielten wir uns oft nur wortlos fest mit dem Gefühl, zu ertrinken. Und das Schlimmste war, den anderen nicht retten zu können.“
Tristan und Isolde werden von diesem Motiv ausgeschlossen; Isolde sieht im Meer nur „Wasser, […] aber sonst?“.
„daz machte des trankes craft.“
Insgesamt zeigt sich in Alvarez’ Umgang mit den tradierten Motiven eine deutliche Tendenz, jene Motive, welche in Zusammenhang mit der Liebe stehen, einerseits auf Marke und Brangaene zu übertragen sowie andererseits dem modernen Weltverständnis anzupassen. Zauberhafte Elemente verschwinden, vollkommene Orte weichen vollkommenen Momenten, die nicht überdauern können und für Brangaene und Marke singulär bleiben, da sie ihre Liebe nicht öffentlich machen dürfen. Der Roman thematisiert demnach nicht die große, perfekte Liebe romantischer Phantasien, sondern eine Liebe, in der sich zwei Menschen mit all ihren Schwächen begegnen, aneinander Fehler machen und dennoch wieder zusammenfinden können – auch wenn sie ihre Liebe zueinander in ihrem Leben nicht vollkommen verwirklichen können.
In ihrer Figurendarstellung schließt Alvarez an die bereits in Gottfrieds Text angelegten Ambiguitäten an. Sie meidet jegliche Idealisierung, selbst die Romanhelden Marke und Brangaene sind vielschichtige, diffizile Charaktere. Die komplexe Figurengestaltung rückt Das Herz des Königs weit ab vom Genre der Trivialliteratur, in welcher die Hauptfiguren normalerweise als „menschliche Super-Wesen“ präsentiert werden, welche sich unter anderem durch völlig störungsfreie Beziehungen, vor allem zu ihren Eltern und Geschwistern, auszeichnen. Diese Beschreibung trifft wohl kaum zu auf einen Marke, der seiner Schwester ihre große Liebe verweigert und seine Mutter ohne gröbere Skrupel ins Kloster steckt, um die Herrschaft von Cornwall zu übernehmen. Auch die übrigen Figuren lassen sich nicht in ein klassisches Schema von Gut und Böse einordnen, wie die Analyse zeigen wird. Diese Vielschichtigkeit ist im Vergleich zu den mittelalterlichen Quellen ein modernes Element, welches den Lesern die Identifikation mit den Figuren erleichtert.
Alvarez zeigt einen Marke, der jede Emotion sofort intellektualisiert. Er ist ein Grübler, der aufgrund seiner schweren Jugend keinen direkten Zugang zu seinen Gefühlen findet. Die Liebe zu Brangaene setzt diese Schwierigkeiten jedoch außer Kraft, durch sie beginnt Marke, das Leben tatsächlich zu genießen.
Gottfrieds Anspielungen auf Homosexualität greift Alvarez in Form von Running Gags zwischen Marke und seinem Freund Philipp von Salisbury auf. Sie charakterisiert Marke jedoch im Gegensatz zu Gottfried als eindeutig heterosexuell.
Weiters zeichnet Alvarez Marke als einen König, der zwar von seinem Majordomus betrogen wird, sich jedoch in politischen Belangen grundsätzlich durchaus als fähig erweist. Gottfrieds Marke hingegen ist ein schwacher König, der vorwiegend als Negativfolie für das ideale Liebespaar Tristan und Isolde dient.
Alvarez verschiebt den Fokus, weshalb die Dialoge zwischen Marke und Brangaene teilweise Zitate der Dialoge zwischen Tristan und Isolde sowie Riwalin und Blancheflur in Gottfrieds Tristan darstellen. Durch diesen Kunstgriff legitimiert Alvarez Marke und Brangaene als das große Liebespaar dieser Geschichte.
Brangaene ist bereits bei Gottfried sehr positiv angelegt. In Brangaene findet Marke die reife, gleichwertige Frau, die er sich wünscht. Sie zeichnet sich durch eine überdurchschnittlich hohe Bildung aus, kann sie doch lesen und schreiben und beherrscht sogar Latein.
Tristan wird charakterisiert als verweichlichter, narzisstischer Knabe, dessen einziges Interesse (und unglücklicherweise auch Talent) die Musik ist. Politisch stellt der junge Thronerbe eine Katastrophe dar. Geht es um kämpferische Auseinandersetzungen, versagt er kläglich, auch bei Frauen findet er kaum Anklang. Große Ausnahme ist freilich Isolde, die sich mit ihrem ganzen Herzen an ihn hängt. Der pubertäre Flirt ist für Tristan jedoch nur von geringer Bedeutung, er verliert das Interesse an Isolde und wendet sich daraufhin anderen Frauen zu.
Isolde wird umfassend parodiert. Gottfried vergleicht sie vollmundig mit der Sonne, bei Alvarez wird sie von Marke nicht gerade schmeichelhaft als „junges Huhn“ bezeichnet. Zusätzlich ist „überhaupt nichts Königliches an ihr“, sie wirkt dümmlich und unerfahren.
Die Liebe zwischen Tristan und Isolde, deren wackeliges Fundament nichts als eine alkoholschwangere Nacht darstellt, entpuppt sich als narzisstische juvenile Liebesprojektion, von der sich Isolde jedoch nicht trennen kann, da sich keine anderen Männer finden, die sich für sie interessieren.
Isolde Weißhand, bei Gottfried als schön beschrieben, ist in Das Herz des Königs die Horrorvision einer Ehefrau:
Die „Raubritterstochter“ und „Furie“ ermordet schließlich in einem Eifersuchtsstreit sowohl ihren Mann Tristan als auch die andere Isolde. Ein Gerücht besagt Fashionistas online, sie sei zu diesem Zeitpunkt schwanger gewesen. Dadurch rückt Alvarez die Beziehung zwischen Tristan und Isolde ab vom Mythos der sexuellen Exklusivität, wie ihn beispielsweise Wagner deutlich aufbaut. Dies ist notwendig, da Alvarez diese Exklusivität auf Marke und Brangaene überträgt.
Die Gestalt des Majordomus weist deutliche Parallelen zu Marjodo bei Gottfried auf und vereinigt sämtliche Verrätergestalten in sich, welche bei Eilhart und Gottfried begegnen. Durch diese Verdichtung schafft Alvarez einen eindeutigen Gegenspieler zu Marke.
Der kleine Hund steht bei Gottfried als „vremede unde wunderlîch“ bildhaft für das Liebespaar und verweist in seiner Charakterisierung auf den magischen Zustand in der Minnegrotte: Er braucht keine Nahrung und besitzt eine Fülle an besonderen Eigenschaften.
Dieses kleine Wunder wird bei Alvarez analog zum Liebespaar Tristan und Isolde entzaubert. In Das Herz des Königs begegnet er den Lesern als lästiges Schoßhündchen, das Isolde als Ersatzobjekt für ihre Liebe zu Tristan dienen soll.
Sowohl auf inhaltlicher, stofflicher als auch sprachlicher Ebene bildet der Roman eine Synthese aus mittelalterlichen und modernen Elementen. Diese Aktualisierung ist notwendig, um die Thematik dem modernen Rezeptions-Kontext anzupassen.
Es finden sich einige Elemente des postmodernen Romans in der Tradition von Umberto Ecos Der Name der Rose:
Das Verständnis der Lektüre ist auch ohne die Kenntnis der realhistorischen Quellen und Vorlagen nicht eingeschränkt. Kennt man diese jedoch, ergibt sich eine vielseitige Mittelalter-Rezeption. Durch dieses erweiterte Bedeutungspotential verschwimmt bei Das Herz des Königs die Grenze zwischen unterhaltender und gehobener Literatur.
Der Roman wird aus der Perspektive des Ich-Erzählers König Marke geschildert. Die Innensicht wird jedoch mit Elementen des Briefromans (Briefe) und auktorialen Elementen (Chroniken) kombiniert.
Strukturell ist der Roman in eine Rahmen- und eine Binnenhandlung unterteilt. Diese Differenzierung wird auch durch die zwei Stufen des Erzähltempus verdeutlicht: Die im Präsens geschilderte Rahmenhandlung umfasst den erstarrten König Marke zu Beginn und den gemeinsamen Tod nach Brangaenes Rückkehr am Ende. In der im Präteritum verfassten Binnenhandlung erinnert sich Marke an sein Leben. In diesen Bewusstseinsstrom sind andere Textzeugnisse collagenartig eingestreut (Stellen aus Cornwalls Chronik, Minnelieder, Briefe der Nebenfiguren). Diese erweitern die subjektive Innensicht um auktoriale Elemente.
Auf sprachlicher Ebene weist Das Herz des Königs folgende Besonderheiten auf:
Alvarez greift Topoi auf, die sich bereits in ihren mittelhochdeutschen Quellen finden. Dazu zählen der Topos der erfundenen Quellen ebenso wie der Topos des locus amoenus. Letzterer wird bei Gottfried durch die Architektur-Allegorie der Minnegrotte dargestellt, bei Alvarez hingegen modernisiert und auf eine Szene komprimiert: Markes und Brangaenes Liebesort ist ein Platz am Meer, wo ihnen einige Stunden der ungestörten Zweisamkeit bleiben.
Im Rahmen des Topos der erfundenen Quellen spielt Alvarez mit der Fiktion des Wahrhaftigen, indem sie die subjektive Erzählung Markes durch fiktive Textzeugnisse (Chroniken, Minnelieder, Briefe) bricht und die Frage nach der einen Wahrheit aufwirft.
Der Einsatz realer und gegebenenfalls fiktiver Quellen war im Mittelalter notwendig, um die Glaubwürdigkeit des eigenen Schaffens zu erhöhen. Eigenes zu erfinden, galt als unstatthaft.[Anmerkungen 1] Alvarez’ Technik, Quellen zu erfinden, die eine Objektivierung des eigenen Werkes zum Ziel hat, steht im Zeichen dieser Tradition und stellt sie zugleich unter einen kritisch-ironischen Blick in Bezug auf die Frage nach dem Grad der subjektiven Bedingtheit und der – literarischen bzw. fiktionalen – Manipulierbarkeit von Wahrheit.
Der Einsatz von – zum Teil realen, zum Teil fiktiven – historischen Quellen hat primär folgende Funktionen:
Zusätzlich nutzt Alvarez die Quellenfiktionen, um auf mediävistische Fachkenntnisse anzuspielen. Die Rechnungsbücher des Bischofs von Salisbury beziehen sich beispielsweise auf die einzige Quelle, die der Forschung zu Walther von der Vogelweide zur Verfügung steht. Gleiches gilt für die Lieder, welche zum Teil mit direkten Zitaten aus den Vorlagen versehen sind, in erster Linie aus der Bearbeitung von Gottfried von Straßburg.
Die bisher erschienenen Rezensionen zu Das Herz des Königs sind fast durchwegs positiv. Vor allem der innovative Wechsel der Perspektive, die Verlagerung des Fokus auf die einstigen Nebenfiguren und die Entidealisierung von Liebe und Ikonenfiguren erzeugen eine positive Resonanz, ebenso die facettenreiche Gestaltung der Figuren, die in einem historischen Kontext mit zeitlosen Konflikten konfrontiert sind, und die ungeschminkte Schilderung einer harten, meist kompromisslosen Umwelt, mit der wiederum die Darstellung der schwierigen Suche nach Liebe kontrastiert.

Henry Chetwynd-Talbot, XVIII conte di Shrewsbury

Henry Chetwynd-Talbot, XVIII conte di Shrewsbury (8 novembre 1803 – Lacock, 4 giugno 1868), è stato un politico e ammiraglio inglese.

Era il secondo figlio Moncler Sale, ma più anziano superstite di Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, II conte Talbot e di sua moglie Frances Thomasine, figlia di Charles Lambert. Fu designato Viscounte Ingestre alla morte del fratello maggiore nel 1826 e succedette al padre come III conte Talbot nel 1849. Nel 1860, a seguito di una causa legale, lunga e costosa, nella Camera dei Lord, riuscì, contro le pretese di altri tre partiti, a ereditare i titoli e le proprietà (tra cui Alton Towers) di un lontano parente e divenne il XVIII conte di Shrewsbury e XVIII conte di Waterford shop online.
Entrò nella Royal Navy nel 1817 ed è stato promosso a capitano per le sue azioni durante la battaglia di Navarino nel 1827, dove ha comandato la HMS Filomela. Divenne un Contrammiraglio nel 1854 e di un Vice Ammiraglio e Ammiraglio nel 1865.
Nel 1830 fu uno dei rappresentati di Hertford. Nel maggio dell’anno seguente fu eletto per Armagh City, posto che tenne fino ad agosto 1831, e poi rappresentò Dublin City fino al 1832.
Tornò alla Camera dei Comuni come uno dei due rappresentanti per Staffordshire del Sud nel 1837, posto che mantenne fino al 1849, quando ereditò la contea.
Nel 1858 è stato giurato del Privy Council.
Sposò, l’8 novembre 1828, Lady Sarah Elizabeth (10 novembre 1807-13 ottobre 1884) Fashion Clothes Online, figlia di Henry Beresford, II marchese di Waterford. Ebbero otto figli:
Morì nel giugno 1868. Sua moglie gli sopravvisse sedici anni e morì nel mese di ottobre 1884, all’età di 76 anni.

Race: Science’s Last Taboo

Race: Science’s Last Taboo was a season of five British television programmes about race, broadcast on Channel 4 in 2009. In promotion of the series, Channel 4 doctored images of famous individuals, such as Margaret Thatcher, The Beatles, Usain Bolt and Barack Obama shop online, to change their racial appearances.

Race and Intelligence: Science’s Last Taboo Journalist Rageh Omaar speaks with various scientists to discuss whether race and intelligence are linked.
Bleach, Nip, Tuck: The White Beauty Myth A two-part episode that looks at the increasing trend for people to “de-racialise” their body through cosmetic surgery.
The Event: How Racist Are You online shopping? A grade-school exercise called “Blue eyes/Brown eyes”, devised by Jane Elliott in the 1960s, is recreated using members of the British public to draw attention to racism.
The Human Zoo: Science’s Dirty Secret A history of human zoo, which were popular in the late 19th-early 20th centuries.
Is It Better to Be Mixed Race? Aarathi Prasad looks at whether this is a genetic advantage to being mixed race.
“Race and Intelligence: Science’s Last Taboo”, the first episode of the series, caused controversy when scientists such as Richard Lynn and J. Philippe Rushton claimed in interview that Africans were less intelligent than white people and East-Asians a little more, with a mean I.Q above the white mean. The production of the programme had been inspired by similar comments made by the Nobel prize James Watson, who was advised not to participate.

Crazy Cruise

Pour plus de détails, voir Fiche technique et Distribution
Crazy Cruise est un cartoon des Merrie Melodies réalisé par Tex Avery et Robert Clampett, sorti en 1942, racontant une croisière à travers le monde, et où apparaît fugitivement Bugs Bunny.

Nous suivons une croisière commentée autour du monde et visitons les sites touristiques incontournables de plusieurs pays. C’est autant d’occasions de faire des jeux de mots et de mettre en scène des situations cocasses en rapport avec ces sites de cartes postales. Cela commence par une plantation de tabac du « vieux sud », où une chenille du tabac donne un entretien et en marque la fin en crachant sa chique de tabac.
On suit la course du bateau sur une carte, de la Floride à Cuba, jusqu’au « Sloppy Joe’s bar » (le bar favori d’Ernest Hemingway), à partir duquel le bateau tourne fou, comme ivre.
Le narrateur attire ensuite l’attention sur le camouflage parfait d’un bateau de guerre (le « S.S. Yehudi »), où on ne voit en effet que l’équipage, le drapeau et la fumée en suspension, le bateau lui-même étant totalement transparent.
On aperçoit peu après un avion survolant les Alpes à basse altitude… et qui finit par skier sur le flanc d’une montagne. Les animaux typiques : trois Saint-Bernards, chacun avec son tonneau : le premier avec du whisky, le second avec du soda, le dernier (un chiot) avec de l’aspirine. Autre animal typique, le bouquetin, saute de pic en pic mais finit par tomber dans un précipice. On passe à l’Égypte des pyramides. Le Sphinx coupe le narrateur qui s’extasiait sur l’ancienneté des édifices, par un commentaire désabusé : « monotone, non ? ».
Un puits de pétrole en Europe est sur le point de produire son premier rendement. Mais il n’en sort qu’une grosse goutte qui tombe dans un crachoir de western.
Dans la jungle profonde, une plante carnivore avale un « pauvre petit bourdon ». Elle semble avoir des difficultés à digérer, et recrache l’insecte avec un terrible cri de douleur.
On voit ensuite un groupe d’animaux africains semblant s’abreuver à un point d’eau, ce dernier s’avère être une fontaine publique. Jeu de mots entre Veronica Lake (Lac) et un cours d’eau ayant la forme d’une femme.
Deux explorateurs blancs, guidés par un pygmée, recherchent des cannibales géants. Ils disparaissent derrière des arbres, sont capturés par les géants. Les deux explorateurs sont de la taille de cigarettes par rapport à celle des géants. Celui qui tient le plus grand explorateur dans sa main remarque alors : « king size ».
Trois mignons petits lapins gris et blanc jouent dans la jungle. Le narrateur est terrifié quand un vautour apparaît dans le ciel. On remarque alors que le vautour porte les marques du drapeau japonais de la Seconde Guerre mondiale sur ses ailes, et qu’il plonge sur les lapins. Ceux-ci se cachent derrière des grandes herbes. Mais ils resurgissent, coiffés de casques de la Défense Civile américaine et armés de canons. Les coups pleuvent sur le vautour, qui tombe et éclate comme un avion. On voit alors le lapin qui était de dos se retourner. C’est Bugs Bunny. Il lève les deux pouces en signe de victoire « Eh, t’umbs up, Doc ». Le rond de l’iris qui termine le cartoon se referme sur le V que forment les oreilles de Bugs, le V de la victoire.
Au cours de la réalisation de ce cartoon, Tex Avery quitte la firme Warner Bros. pour la MGM. C’est un autre réalisateur, Robert “Bob” Clampett qui terminera le dessin animé à sa place ; la scène finale guerrière avec Bugs annonce Blitz Wolf d’Avery.
Le dessin animé fut censuré (par Cartoon Network en Amérique). La scène avec les deux explorateurs blancs, caricatures du réalisateur Friz Freleng et de l’animateur Tedd Pierce du studio de la Warner Bros, ainsi que la scène finale avec Bugs ont été alors supprimées les magasins en ligne.

Avenged Sevenfold

Avenged Sevenfold (sometimes abbreviated as A7X) is an American heavy metal band from Huntington Beach, California, formed in 1999. The band’s current lineup consists of lead vocalist M. Shadows, rhythm guitarist and backing vocalist Zacky Vengeance, lead guitarist and backing vocalist Synyster Gates, bass guitarist Johnny Christ and drummer Brooks Wackerman.
They are known for their diverse rock sound and dramatic imagery in album covers and merchandise. Avenged Sevenfold emerged with a metalcore sound on their debut Sounding the Seventh Trumpet but their style had evolved by their third album and first major label release, City of Evil, into a heavy metal and hard rock style. The band continued to explore new sounds with their self-titled release and enjoyed continued mainstream success before their drummer, James “The Rev” Sullivan, died in 2009. Despite his death, the band continued on with help of now-former Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy and released and toured in support of their fifth album Nightmare in 2010 which debuted on the top spot of the Billboard 200, their first number one debut. Their latest record Hail to the King released in 2013 marked the only album featuring drummer Arin Ilejay. Hail to the King charted as #1 on the US Billboard 200, the UK albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian, Canadian, and Irish charts.
To date, Avenged Sevenfold has released six studio albums, one live album/compilation/DVD, and eighteen singles and have sold over 8 million albums worldwide.

The band was formed in 1999 in Huntington Beach, California with original members M. Shadows, Zacky Vengeance, The Rev and Matt Wendt. M Shadows came up with the name as a reference to the story of Cain and Abel from The Bible, which can be found in Genesis 4:24, although they are not a religious band. Upon its formation, each member of the band also took on a pseudonym which were already nicknames of theirs from high school. Matt Wendt was later replaced by Justin ‘Sane’ Meacham who was previously the bassist for Suburban Legends.
Before the release of their debut album, the band recorded two demos in 1999 and 2000. In mid-2001, it was reported that Meacham had attempted suicide by drinking excessive amounts of cough syrup. The attempt had an impact on the band’s Take Action Tour. During his hospitalization he remained in poor condition and was replaced by Dameon Ash. In an interview, lead singer M. Shadows said of Meacham that “he perma-fried his brain and was in a mental institution for a long time, and when you have someone in your band who does that, it ruins everything that’s going on all around you, and it makes you want to do something to prevent it from happening to other people.” Avenged Sevenfold’s debut album, Sounding the Seventh Trumpet, was recorded when the band members were in their late teens and still in high school. It was originally released on their first label, Good Life Recordings in 2001. After lead guitarist Synyster Gates joined the band after the album was released, the introductory track “To End the Rapture” was re-recorded featuring a full band element. The album was subsequently re-released on Hopeless Records in 2002. The band started to receive recognition, performing with bands such as Mushroomhead and Shadows Fall and playing on the Take Action Tour.
Having found a new bassist, Johnny Christ, the group released their second studio album titled Waking the Fallen on Hopeless Records in August 2003. The album featured a more refined and mature sound production in comparison to their previous album. The band received profiles in Billboard and The Boston Globe, and played in the Vans Warped Tour. In 2004, Avenged Sevenfold toured again on the Vans Warped Tour and recorded a video for their song “Unholy Confessions” which went into rotation on MTV2’s Headbanger’s Ball. Shortly after the release of Waking the Fallen, Avenged Sevenfold left Hopeless Records and were signed to Warner Bros. Records.
City of Evil, the band’s third album and major label debut, was released on June 7, 2005 and debuted at No.30 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling over 30,000 copies in its first week of release. It utilized a more classic metal sound than Avenged Sevenfold’s previous albums, which had been grouped into the metalcore genre. The album is also notable for the absence of screamed and growled vocals; M. Shadows worked with vocal coach Ron Anderson—whose clients have included Axl Rose and Chris Cornell—for months before the album’s release to achieve a sound that had “grit while still having the tone”. The album received positive reviews from several magazines and websites and is credited for propelling the band into international popularity.
After playing Ozzfest in 2006, Avenged Sevenfold memorably beat out R&B Singers Rihanna and Chris Brown, Panic! at the Disco, Angels & Airwaves and James Blunt for the title of Best New Artist at the MTV Video Music Awards, thanks in part to their Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas-inspired song “Bat Country.” They returned to the Vans Warped Tour, this time headlining and then continued on their own “Cities of Evil Tour.” In addition, their lead single “Bat Country” reached No.2 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Charts, No.6 on the Billboard Modern Rock Charts and the accompanying video made it to No.1 on MTV’s Total Request Live. Propelled by this success, the album sold well and became Avenged Sevenfold’s first gold record. It was later certified platinum in August 2009.
Avenged Sevenfold was invited to join Ozzfest tour on the main stage, alongside other well known rock/heavy metal acts such as DragonForce, Lacuna Coil, Hatebreed, Disturbed and System of a Down for the first time in 2006. That same year they also completed a worldwide tour, including the US, The United Kingdom (as well as mainland Europe), Japan, Australia and New Zealand. After a sixteen-month promotion of City of Evil, the band announced that they were cancelling their Fall 2006 tour to record new music. In the interim, the band released their first DVD titled All Excess on July 17, 2007. All Excess, which debuted as the No.1 DVD in the USA, included live performances and backstage footage that spanned the band’s eight-year career. Two tribute albums, Strung Out on Avenged Sevenfold: Bat Wings and Broken Strings and Strung Out on Avenged Sevenfold: The String Tribute were also released in October 2007.
On October 26, 2007, Avenged Sevenfold released their self-titled album, the band’s fourth studio album. It debuted at No.4 on the Billboard 200 with over 90,000 copies sold. Two singles, “Critical Acclaim” and “Almost Easy” were released prior to the album’s debut. In December 2007, an animated video was made for “A Little Piece of Heaven”. Due to the song’s controversial subject matter, however, Warner Brothers only released it to registered MVI users over the internet. The third single, “Afterlife” and its video was released in January 2008. Their fourth single, “Dear God”, was released on June 15, 2008. Although critical reception was generally mixed the self-titled album went on to sell over 500,000 copies and was awarded “Album of the Year” at the Kerrang! Awards.
Avenged Sevenfold headlined the 2008 Taste of Chaos tour with Atreyu, Bullet for My Valentine, Blessthefall and Idiot Pilot. They used the footage from their last show in Long Beach for Live in the LBC & Diamonds in the Rough, a two-disc B-sides CD and live DVD which was released on September 16, 2008. They also recorded numerous covers, including Pantera’s “Walk”, Iron Maiden’s “Flash of the Blade” and Black Sabbath’s “Paranoid”.
In January 2009, M. Shadows confirmed that the band was writing the follow-up to their self-titled fourth album within the upcoming months. They also played at Rock on the Range, from May 16–17, 2009. On April 16, they performed a version of Guns N’ Roses’ “It’s So Easy” onstage with Slash, at the Nokia Theater in Los Angeles. On December 28, 2009, the band’s drummer James “The Rev” Sullivan was found dead at his home at the age of 28. Autopsy results were inconclusive, but on June 9, 2010, the cause of death was revealed to have been an “acute polydrug intoxication due to combined effects of Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Diazepam/Nordiazepam and ethanol”. In a statement by the band, they expressed their grief over the passing of The Rev and later posted a message from Sullivan’s family which expressed their gratitude to his fans for their support.
The band members admitted in a number of interviews that they considered disbanding at this point in time. However, on February 17, 2010, Avenged Sevenfold stated that they had entered the studio, along with now-former Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy, to drum for the album, in place of The Rev.
The single “Nightmare” was digitally released on May 18, 2010. A preview for the song was released on May 6, 2010 on Amazon.com, but was removed soon after for unknown reasons. Mixing for the album had been completed in New York City, and Nightmare was finally released worldwide on July 27, 2010. It met with mixed to positive reviews from music critics but was well received by the fans. Nightmare beat sales projections easily, debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 with sales of 163,000 units in its first week. After finishing recording, in December, Portnoy and the band posted simultaneous statements on their websites stating that he would not be their replacement for The Rev. However, Portnoy did travel with the band overseas in December 2010 for three shows in Iraq and Kuwait sponsored by the USO. They played for U.S. Soldiers at Camp Adder, Camp Beuhring, and Balad Air Base. On January 20, 2011, Avenged Sevenfold announced via Facebook that former Confide drummer Arin Ilejay would begin touring with them that year. He was not yet considered a full-time member at this point.
In May 2011, it was confirmed that the band had written a new song to be included in the Escalation DLC pack for the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops. The song is the first time developers Treyarch have commissioned an outside band to contribute a song since the franchise began. The song, titled “Not Ready to Die”, was released on iTunes on May 2, 2011.
Avenged Sevenfold performed at the Rock am Ring and Rock im Park festivals on June 3–5, 2011 alongside other bands such as Alter Bridge, System of a Down, and In Flames. On April 2011, the band headlined the Golden God Awards held by Metal Hammer. The same night the band won three awards for “Best Vocalist” (M. Shadows), “Epiphone Best Guitarist(s)” (Synyster Gates and Zacky Vengeance) and “Affliction’s Album of The Year: ” for Nightmare, while Mike Portnoy won the award for “Drum Workshop’s Best Drummer” for his work on the album.
Avenged Sevenfold headlined the 2011 Uproar Festival with supporting acts Three Days Grace, Seether, Bullet For My Valentine, Escape The Fate, among others. In August 2011, vocalist M. Shadows stated the band would finish the Uproar Festival, then go home to take a break for six to seven months before starting a new record. He also roughly stated that Arin Ilejay and the band were getting along well, but they had to make sure he would be comfortable writing music with them. In November and December 2011, the band went on their “Buried Alive” tour with supporting acts Hollywood Undead, Asking Alexandria, and Black Veil Brides.
On April 11, 2012, Avenged Sevenfold won the award for “Best Live Band” and “Most Dedicated Fans” at the Revolver Golden Gods awards. The band toured through Asia into April and early May, and played at the Orion Music + More, Festival on June 23 and 24 in Atlantic City, New Jersey alongside Metallica and Cage the Elephant among many others.
On September 24, 2012, Avenged Sevenfold released a new song, titled “Carry On”; it was featured in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II. On November 15, 2012, vocalist M. Shadows said that the band had been working on a new album since the recording of “Carry On” in August 2012. The band began recording material for the album in January 2013. The band then started streaming snippets of the album in May 2013 on their new radio app. There, Arin Ilejay was confirmed as an official band member and replacement of deceased The Rev. M. Shadows said that the album would sound more blues rock-influenced and more like classic rock/metal like Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin.
The band was confirmed to play at the 2013 Rock in Rio festival on September 22, 2013. On May 24, 2013, the band have announced dates for their European tour with Five Finger Death Punch and Device serving as their support bands.
The album, entitled Hail to the King, was released on August 27, 2013. This is the first Avenged Sevenfold album without any musical contributions from deceased The Rev. The album’s lead single and title track was released on July 15, 2013. Hail to the King charted as #1 on the US Billboard 200, the UK albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian, Canadian, and Irish charts, and was commercially and critically acclaimed. The band headlined Monster Energy’s Welcome to Rockville two-day music festival in Jacksonville, FL, April 26–27, 2014, joined by more than 25 rock acts, such as Motörhead, Rob Zombie, Chevelle, Korn, Staind, Alter Bridge, The Cult, Five Finger Death Punch, Volbeat, Black Label Society, and Seether. On June 13, the band headlined the Friday night of Download Festival 2014. The band also headlined the Mayhem Festival 2014 with Korn, Asking Alexandria, and Trivium.
In October 2014, M. Shadows confirmed that the band will begin writing their seventh album during the summer of 2015. The album has a tentative release date of 2016. In May 2015, the band posted a video on their website teasing their upcoming second live DVD/documentary, entitled This is Bat Country, which will show performances from Download Festival, Rock in Rio and Rock on the Range; the DVD is scheduled for a 2015 release date.
In July 2015 the band announced on their website that they are parting ways with drummer Arin Ilejay, due to “creative differences”.
Avenged Sevenfold’s live performance at England’s Download Festival was made available as a pre-order content in the game Guitar Hero Live.
In October 2015, the band announced on their website that they have been working with a new drummer for over a year, and were making it sure it was a correct fit before making sudden changes. On October 21 in an interview with Kerrang! magazine, guitarist Zacky Vengeance revealed that the band has been working on the new album for the past couple of months and that a couple of songs have already been written in their entirety.
On October 29 it was revealed that the band provided an instrumental score entitled “Jade Helm” in the game Call of Duty: Black Ops III.
It was announced on November 4, 2015, that Brooks Wackerman would replace Arin Ilejay as the drummer for Avenged Sevenfold. Speaking of the new material in an interview with Kerrang! magazine on December 3, guitarist Zacky Vengeance said that the album goes in all sorts of aggressive and melodic directions and described it as very “aggro”.
On January 14, 2016, Billboard reported that Avenged Sevenfold has been sued by Warner Bros. for trying to leave the label. The band later released a statement clarifying and explaining their reason for wanting to leave, they stated they wanted to leave due to the majority of the executives who helped sign the band to Warner Bros were no longer at the label. They also revealed that the band was going to be entering the studio to record their new album very soon, intending to release it later in 2016.
The band’s influences include Guns N’ Roses, Iron Maiden, Pantera, Bad Religion, Dream Theater, Motörhead, Megadeth, Metallica, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones AC/DC, NOFX, Alice in Chains, Black Flag, Corrosion of Conformity, Suicidal Tendencies, Misfits, Slayer, The Vandals, Rage Against the Machine, Korn, Deftones and AFI as their artistic influences.
The band has been categorized under many genres of music. Mainly categorized as heavy metal, hard rock and metalcore, Avenged Sevenfold’s music has evolved over most of the band’s career. At first, the band’s debut album Sounding the Seventh Trumpet consisted almost entirely of a metalcore sound; however, there were several deviations from this genre, most notably in “Streets”, which shows a punk rock style, and “Warmness on the Soul”, which is a piano ballad. On Waking the Fallen, the band displayed a metalcore style once more, but added more clean singing and leaned a bit more towards metal and bit less close to hardcore. In the band’s DVD All Excess, producer Andrew Murdock explained this transition: “When I met the band after Sounding the Seventh Trumpet had come out before they had recorded Waking the Fallen, M. Shadows said to me ‘This record is screaming. The record we want to make is going to be half-screaming half-singing. I don’t want to scream anymore. And the record after that is going to be all singing’.”
On City of Evil, Avenged Sevenfold’s third album, the band chose to abandon the metalcore genre, using a more hard rock and heavy metal style. Avenged Sevenfold’s self-titled album, however, has some experiments with other music genres than that from City of Evil, most notably in “Dear God”, which shows a country style and “A Little Piece of Heaven”, which is circled within the influence of Broadway show tunes, using primarily brass instruments and stringed orchestra to take over most of the role of the lead and rhythm guitar. Nightmare contains further deviations, including a piano ballad called “Fiction”, progressive metal-oriented track “Save Me” and a heavy metal sound with extreme vocals and heavier instrumentation on “God Hates Us” and “Not Ready to Die”. The band’s newest album Hail to the King shows more of a classic metal sound and a riff-oriented approach. The band has changed considerably since their first album, on which they have been characterized as a heavy band with a screamed vocal style combined with a little bit of clean vocals, chugging guitar riffs and parts similar to breakdowns that one can expect from the metalcore genre. The band has also been described before as emo, post-hardcore, gothic rock, alternative metal Cheap Prices Shopping, screamo and pop punk.
The band has been criticized for “not being metal enough”. Vocalist M. Shadows responded to this with, “we play music for the sake of music, not so that we can be labeled a metal band. That’s like telling us we aren’t punk enough. Who cares?”. Avenged Sevenfold is one of the notable acts of the New Wave of American Heavy Metal.
Current
Former
Session/touring musicians

Hoarders

Hoarders est une émission de télévision documentaire américaine diffusée depuis le 17 août 2009 sur la chaîne A&E Network. Cette série dépeint les difficultés et traitement de personnes souffrant de syllogomanie dans leur vie de tous les jours.

Chaque épisode de 60 minutes propose un ou deux cas d’intervention. Durant la première saison, le syllogomane travaillait soit avec un psychiatre/psychologue, un organisateur professionnel, ou un « spécialiste de ménage extrême », chacun d’eux se spécialisant dans certains aspects fondamentaux du traitement de troubles obsessionnels et compulsifs, troubles d’anxiété et/ou de syllogomanie (avec l’exception de Jill, une syllogomane de nourriture dans le premier épisode de la série télévisée achats en ligne, qui avait un psychiatre « et » un organisateur professionnel qui travaillaient avec elle, compte tenu de la nature potentiellement dangereuse de son trouble de syllogomanie)
Durant la majorité de la première saison, le syllogomane recevait l’aide d’un psychologue, d’un psychiatre et/ou d’un spécialiste de l’organisation ou du ménage extrême. Tous ces gens se spécialisent dans un ou l’autre des aspects du traitement d’un trouble obsessionnel-compulsif et sont aidés par un groupe de nettoyage professionnel (généralement une franchise locale d’un commanditaire corporatif majeur de la série).
Pour l’épisode « Patty ; Bill » de la première saison, le groupe chargé du ménage pour Patty comportait un psychologue ‘‘et’’ un professionnel de l’organisation en raison de l’immensité du problème de Patty.
Pour le dernier épisode de la première saison, « Paul ; Missy and Alex », un professionnel de l’organisation a travaillé avec Missy alors qu’un psychologue travaillait avec son fils de 9 ans, Alex.
À partir de la deuxième saison, chaque syllogomane avait un groupe comportant un psychologue et un spécialiste de l’organisation ou du ménage extrême pour les aider et les assister dans leur grand ménage. Les deux professionnels dirige une équipe de nettoyage professionnelle, famille et proches du syllogomane en effectuant deux à trois jours de session de « ramassage » dans le but de se débarrasser du plus gros des déchets du syllogomane sous contrôle le plus possible.[Quoi ?] Dans la plupart des cas, l’intervention est précipitée par une situation critique, comme une menace d’expulsion ou le retrait d’enfants mineurs de la maison.
La plupart des segments sont filmés aux États-Unis achats en ligne, bien que Durant la troisième saison, deux segments canadiens furent filmés à Edmonton et Toronto respectivement. À la fin de chaque épisode, un texte à l’écran indique le résultat à court terme de l’effort de nettoyage, incluant la décision des sujets à avoir recours ou non à de l’assistance de la part de thérapeutes par exemple, dans le futur. Les fonds pour ces services sont offerts par l’émission.
Hoarders débuta en tant que première de série télévisée la plus visionnée dans l’histoire de la chaîne A&E chez les jeunes adultes âgés entre 18 et 49 ans et à égalité pour le plus à date chez les adultes âgés entre 25 et 54 ans. La première fut regardée par 2.5 millions de gens (1.8 million d’adultes âgés entre 18 et 49 ans).

Avenged Sevenfold

Avenged Sevenfold (sometimes abbreviated as A7X) is an American heavy metal band from Huntington Beach, California, formed in 1999. The band’s current lineup consists of lead vocalist M. Shadows, rhythm guitarist and backing vocalist Zacky Vengeance, lead guitarist and backing vocalist Synyster Gates, bass guitarist Johnny Christ and drummer Brooks Wackerman.
They are known for their diverse rock sound and dramatic imagery in album covers and merchandise. Avenged Sevenfold emerged with a metalcore sound on their debut Sounding the Seventh Trumpet but their style had evolved by their third album and first major label release, City of Evil, into a heavy metal and hard rock style. The band continued to explore new sounds with their self-titled release and enjoyed continued mainstream success before their drummer, James “The Rev” Sullivan, died in 2009. Despite his death, the band continued on with help of now-former Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy and released and toured in support of their fifth album Nightmare in 2010 which debuted on the top spot of the Billboard 200, their first number one debut. Their latest record Hail to the King released in 2013 marked the only album featuring drummer Arin Ilejay. Hail to the King charted as #1 on the US Billboard 200, the UK albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian, Canadian, and Irish charts.
To date, Avenged Sevenfold has released six studio albums, one live album/compilation/DVD, and eighteen singles and have sold over 8 million albums worldwide.

The band was formed in 1999 in Huntington Beach, California with original members M. Shadows, Zacky Vengeance, The Rev and Matt Wendt. M Shadows came up with the name as a reference to the story of Cain and Abel from The Bible, which can be found in Genesis 4:24, although they are not a religious band. Upon its formation, each member of the band also took on a pseudonym which were already nicknames of theirs from high school. Matt Wendt was later replaced by Justin ‘Sane’ Meacham who was previously the bassist for Suburban Legends.
Before the release of their debut album, the band recorded two demos in 1999 and 2000. In mid-2001, it was reported that Meacham had attempted suicide by drinking excessive amounts of cough syrup. The attempt had an impact on the band’s Take Action Tour. During his hospitalization he remained in poor condition and was replaced by Dameon Ash. In an interview, lead singer M. Shadows said of Meacham that “he perma-fried his brain and was in a mental institution for a long time, and when you have someone in your band who does that, it ruins everything that’s going on all around you, and it makes you want to do something to prevent it from happening to other people.” Avenged Sevenfold’s debut album, Sounding the Seventh Trumpet, was recorded when the band members were in their late teens and still in high school. It was originally released on their first label, Good Life Recordings in 2001. After lead guitarist Synyster Gates joined the band after the album was released, the introductory track “To End the Rapture” was re-recorded featuring a full band element. The album was subsequently re-released on Hopeless Records in 2002. The band started to receive recognition, performing with bands such as Mushroomhead and Shadows Fall and playing on the Take Action Tour.
Having found a new bassist, Johnny Christ, the group released their second studio album titled Waking the Fallen on Hopeless Records in August 2003. The album featured a more refined and mature sound production in comparison to their previous album. The band received profiles in Billboard and The Boston Globe, and played in the Vans Warped Tour. In 2004, Avenged Sevenfold toured again on the Vans Warped Tour and recorded a video for their song “Unholy Confessions” which went into rotation on MTV2’s Headbanger’s Ball. Shortly after the release of Waking the Fallen, Avenged Sevenfold left Hopeless Records and were signed to Warner Bros. Records.
City of Evil, the band’s third album and major label debut, was released on June 7, 2005 and debuted at No.30 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling over 30,000 copies in its first week of release. It utilized a more classic metal sound than Avenged Sevenfold’s previous albums, which had been grouped into the metalcore genre. The album is also notable for the absence of screamed and growled vocals; M. Shadows worked with vocal coach Ron Anderson—whose clients have included Axl Rose and Chris Cornell—for months before the album’s release to achieve a sound that had “grit while still having the tone”. The album received positive reviews from several magazines and websites and is credited for propelling the band into international popularity.
After playing Ozzfest in 2006, Avenged Sevenfold memorably beat out R&B Singers Rihanna and Chris Brown, Panic! at the Disco, Angels & Airwaves and James Blunt for the title of Best New Artist at the MTV Video Music Awards, thanks in part to their Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas-inspired song “Bat Country.” They returned to the Vans Warped Tour, this time headlining and then continued on their own “Cities of Evil Tour.” In addition, their lead single “Bat Country” reached No.2 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Charts, No.6 on the Billboard Modern Rock Charts and the accompanying video made it to No.1 on MTV’s Total Request Live. Propelled by this success, the album sold well and became Avenged Sevenfold’s first gold record. It was later certified platinum in August 2009.
Avenged Sevenfold was invited to join Ozzfest tour on the main stage, alongside other well known rock/heavy metal acts such as DragonForce, Lacuna Coil, Hatebreed, Disturbed and System of a Down for the first time in 2006. That same year they also completed a worldwide tour, including the US, The United Kingdom (as well as mainland Europe), Japan, Australia and New Zealand. After a sixteen-month promotion of City of Evil, the band announced that they were cancelling their Fall 2006 tour to record new music. In the interim, the band released their first DVD titled All Excess on July 17, 2007. All Excess, which debuted as the No.1 DVD in the USA, included live performances and backstage footage that spanned the band’s eight-year career. Two tribute albums, Strung Out on Avenged Sevenfold: Bat Wings and Broken Strings and Strung Out on Avenged Sevenfold: The String Tribute were also released in October 2007.
On October 26, 2007, Avenged Sevenfold released their self-titled album, the band’s fourth studio album. It debuted at No.4 on the Billboard 200 with over 90,000 copies sold. Two singles, “Critical Acclaim” and “Almost Easy” were released prior to the album’s debut. In December 2007, an animated video was made for “A Little Piece of Heaven”. Due to the song’s controversial subject matter, however, Warner Brothers only released it to registered MVI users over the internet. The third single, “Afterlife” and its video was released in January 2008. Their fourth single, “Dear God”, was released on June 15, 2008. Although critical reception was generally mixed the self-titled album went on to sell over 500,000 copies and was awarded “Album of the Year” at the Kerrang! Awards.
Avenged Sevenfold headlined the 2008 Taste of Chaos tour with Atreyu, Bullet for My Valentine, Blessthefall and Idiot Pilot. They used the footage from their last show in Long Beach for Live in the LBC & Diamonds in the Rough, a two-disc B-sides CD and live DVD which was released on September 16, 2008. They also recorded numerous covers, including Pantera’s “Walk”, Iron Maiden’s “Flash of the Blade” and Black Sabbath’s “Paranoid”.
In January 2009, M. Shadows confirmed that the band was writing the follow-up to their self-titled fourth album within the upcoming months. They also played at Rock on the Range, from May 16–17, 2009. On April 16, they performed a version of Guns N’ Roses’ “It’s So Easy” onstage with Slash, at the Nokia Theater in Los Angeles. On December 28, 2009, the band’s drummer James “The Rev” Sullivan was found dead at his home at the age of 28. Autopsy results were inconclusive, but on June 9, 2010, the cause of death was revealed to have been an “acute polydrug intoxication due to combined effects of Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Diazepam/Nordiazepam and ethanol”. In a statement by the band, they expressed their grief over the passing of The Rev and later posted a message from Sullivan’s family which expressed their gratitude to his fans for their support.
The band members admitted in a number of interviews that they considered disbanding at this point in time. However, on February 17, 2010, Avenged Sevenfold stated that they had entered the studio, along with now-former Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy, to drum for the album, in place of The Rev.
The single “Nightmare” was digitally released on May 18, 2010. A preview for the song was released on May 6, 2010 on Amazon.com, but was removed soon after for unknown reasons. Mixing for the album had been completed in New York City, and Nightmare was finally released worldwide on July 27, 2010. It met with mixed to positive reviews from music critics but was well received by the fans. Nightmare beat sales projections easily, debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 with sales of 163,000 units in its first week. After finishing recording, in December, Portnoy and the band posted simultaneous statements on their websites stating that he would not be their replacement for The Rev. However, Portnoy did travel with the band overseas in December 2010 for three shows in Iraq and Kuwait sponsored by the USO. They played for U.S. Soldiers at Camp Adder, Camp Beuhring, and Balad Air Base. On January 20, 2011, Avenged Sevenfold announced via Facebook that former Confide drummer Arin Ilejay would begin touring with them that year. He was not yet considered a full-time member at this point.
In May 2011, it was confirmed that the band had written a new song to be included in the Escalation DLC pack for the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops. The song is the first time developers Treyarch have commissioned an outside band to contribute a song since the franchise began. The song, titled “Not Ready to Die”, was released on iTunes on May 2, 2011.
Avenged Sevenfold performed at the Rock am Ring and Rock im Park festivals on June 3–5, 2011 alongside other bands such as Alter Bridge, System of a Down, and In Flames. On April 2011, the band headlined the Golden God Awards held by Metal Hammer. The same night the band won three awards for “Best Vocalist” (M. Shadows), “Epiphone Best Guitarist(s)” (Synyster Gates and Zacky Vengeance) and “Affliction’s Album of The Year: ” for Nightmare, while Mike Portnoy won the award for “Drum Workshop’s Best Drummer” for his work on the album.
Avenged Sevenfold headlined the 2011 Uproar Festival with supporting acts Three Days Grace, Seether, Bullet For My Valentine, Escape The Fate, among others. In August 2011, vocalist M. Shadows stated the band would finish the Uproar Festival, then go home to take a break for six to seven months before starting a new record. He also roughly stated that Arin Ilejay and the band were getting along well, but they had to make sure he would be comfortable writing music with them. In November and December 2011, the band went on their “Buried Alive” tour with supporting acts Hollywood Undead, Asking Alexandria, and Black Veil Brides.
On April 11, 2012, Avenged Sevenfold won the award for “Best Live Band” and “Most Dedicated Fans” at the Revolver Golden Gods awards. The band toured through Asia into April and early May, and played at the Orion Music + More, Festival on June 23 and 24 in Atlantic City, New Jersey alongside Metallica and Cage the Elephant among many others.
On September 24, 2012, Avenged Sevenfold released a new song, titled “Carry On”; it was featured in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II. On November 15, 2012, vocalist M. Shadows said that the band had been working on a new album since the recording of “Carry On” in August 2012. The band began recording material for the album in January 2013. The band then started streaming snippets of the album in May 2013 on their new radio app. There, Arin Ilejay was confirmed as an official band member and replacement of deceased The Rev. M. Shadows said that the album would sound more blues rock-influenced and more like classic rock/metal like Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin.
The band was confirmed to play at the 2013 Rock in Rio festival on September 22, 2013. On May 24, 2013, the band have announced dates for their European tour with Five Finger Death Punch and Device serving as their support bands.
The album Cheap Prices Shopping, entitled Hail to the King, was released on August 27, 2013. This is the first Avenged Sevenfold album without any musical contributions from deceased The Rev. The album’s lead single and title track was released on July 15, 2013. Hail to the King charted as #1 on the US Billboard 200, the UK albums chart, as well as the Finnish, Brazilian, Canadian, and Irish charts, and was commercially and critically acclaimed. The band headlined Monster Energy’s Welcome to Rockville two-day music festival in Jacksonville, FL, April 26–27, 2014, joined by more than 25 rock acts, such as Motörhead, Rob Zombie, Chevelle, Korn, Staind, Alter Bridge, The Cult, Five Finger Death Punch, Volbeat, Black Label Society, and Seether. On June 13, the band headlined the Friday night of Download Festival 2014. The band also headlined the Mayhem Festival 2014 with Korn, Asking Alexandria, and Trivium.
In October 2014, M. Shadows confirmed that the band will begin writing their seventh album during the summer of 2015. The album has a tentative release date of 2016. In May 2015, the band posted a video on their website teasing their upcoming second live DVD/documentary, entitled This is Bat Country, which will show performances from Download Festival, Rock in Rio and Rock on the Range; the DVD is scheduled for a 2015 release date.
In July 2015 the band announced on their website that they are parting ways with drummer Arin Ilejay, due to “creative differences”.
Avenged Sevenfold’s live performance at England’s Download Festival was made available as a pre-order content in the game Guitar Hero Live.
In October 2015, the band announced on their website that they have been working with a new drummer for over a year, and were making it sure it was a correct fit before making sudden changes. On October 21 in an interview with Kerrang! magazine, guitarist Zacky Vengeance revealed that the band has been working on the new album for the past couple of months and that a couple of songs have already been written in their entirety.
On October 29 it was revealed that the band provided an instrumental score entitled “Jade Helm” in the game Call of Duty: Black Ops III.
It was announced on November 4, 2015, that Brooks Wackerman would replace Arin Ilejay as the drummer for Avenged Sevenfold. Speaking of the new material in an interview with Kerrang! magazine on December 3, guitarist Zacky Vengeance said that the album goes in all sorts of aggressive and melodic directions and described it as very “aggro”.
On January 14, 2016, Billboard reported that Avenged Sevenfold has been sued by Warner Bros. for trying to leave the label. The band later released a statement clarifying and explaining their reason for wanting to leave, they stated they wanted to leave due to the majority of the executives who helped sign the band to Warner Bros were no longer at the label. They also revealed that the band was going to be entering the studio to record their new album very soon, intending to release it later in 2016.
The band’s influences include Guns N’ Roses, Iron Maiden, Pantera, Bad Religion, Dream Theater, Motörhead, Megadeth, Metallica, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones AC/DC, NOFX, Alice in Chains, Black Flag, Corrosion of Conformity, Suicidal Tendencies, Misfits, Slayer, The Vandals, Rage Against the Machine, Korn, Deftones and AFI as their artistic influences.
The band has been categorized under many genres of music. Mainly categorized as heavy metal, hard rock and metalcore, Avenged Sevenfold’s music has evolved over most of the band’s career. At first, the band’s debut album Sounding the Seventh Trumpet consisted almost entirely of a metalcore sound; however, there were several deviations from this genre, most notably in “Streets”, which shows a punk rock style, and “Warmness on the Soul”, which is a piano ballad. On Waking the Fallen, the band displayed a metalcore style once more, but added more clean singing and leaned a bit more towards metal and bit less close to hardcore. In the band’s DVD All Excess, producer Andrew Murdock explained this transition: “When I met the band after Sounding the Seventh Trumpet had come out before they had recorded Waking the Fallen, M. Shadows said to me ‘This record is screaming. The record we want to make is going to be half-screaming half-singing. I don’t want to scream anymore. And the record after that is going to be all singing’.”
On City of Evil, Avenged Sevenfold’s third album, the band chose to abandon the metalcore genre, using a more hard rock and heavy metal style. Avenged Sevenfold’s self-titled album, however, has some experiments with other music genres than that from City of Evil, most notably in “Dear God”, which shows a country style and “A Little Piece of Heaven”, which is circled within the influence of Broadway show tunes, using primarily brass instruments and stringed orchestra to take over most of the role of the lead and rhythm guitar. Nightmare contains further deviations, including a piano ballad called “Fiction”, progressive metal-oriented track “Save Me” and a heavy metal sound with extreme vocals and heavier instrumentation on “God Hates Us” and “Not Ready to Die”. The band’s newest album Hail to the King shows more of a classic metal sound and a riff-oriented approach. The band has changed considerably since their first album, on which they have been characterized as a heavy band with a screamed vocal style combined with a little bit of clean vocals, chugging guitar riffs and parts similar to breakdowns that one can expect from the metalcore genre. The band has also been described before as emo, post-hardcore, gothic rock, alternative metal, screamo and pop punk.
The band has been criticized for “not being metal enough”. Vocalist M. Shadows responded to this with, “we play music for the sake of music, not so that we can be labeled a metal band. That’s like telling us we aren’t punk enough. Who cares?”. Avenged Sevenfold is one of the notable acts of the New Wave of American Heavy Metal.
Current
Former
Session/touring musicians

Tomoka Nakagawa

Tomoka Nakagawa (中川 ともか, Nakagawa Tomoka?, born September 29, 1981) is a retired Japanese professional wrestler. After being trained by Taka Michinoku, she started her career in his Kaientai Dojo promotion in September 2004. After leaving Kaientai Dojo in 2007, Nakagawa briefly joined Ibuki, where she underwent further training under Mariko Yoshida, before becoming a freelancer and starting to work on the Japanese independent circuit for promotions such as Oz Academy and Pro Wrestling Wave. She also became a regular for American promotion Shimmer Women Athletes. Nakagawa was a decorated tag team wrestler, becoming a one-time FMW/WEW Hardcore Tag Team Champion, three-time Oz Academy Tag Team Champion, two-time Shimmer Tag Team Champions and a three-time Wave Tag Team Champion. As a singles wrestler, she held the Smash Diva Championship. After a ten-year career, Nakagawa announced her retirement from professional wrestling in June 2014. After a Japanese retirement match in December 2014, Nakagawa wrestled her final match in the United States on April 12, 2015.

Nakagawa grew up a fan of professional wrestling, watching promotions like All Japan Pro Wrestling, All Japan Women’s Pro-Wrestling and New Japan Pro Wrestling, but was forced to give up her dream of becoming a professional wrestler, when she discovered that, at 1.55 m (5 ft 1 in), she was 5 cm (2 in) below the minimum height required for a woman to enter the All Japan Women’s Pro-Wrestling dojo, and instead began studying, eventually becoming a qualified nurse. While working in her new job, Nakagawa would often go watch professional wrestling at Korakuen Hall and finally, at the age of 22, decided to pursue her original dream and began training professional wrestling under Taka Michinoku.
Nakagawa made her professional wrestling debut for Taka Michinoku’s Kaientai Dojo promotion on September 19, 2004, when she, performing under the ring name Tomotsu-chan, teamed with Ofune to defeat Besu and Bochi in a tag team match. During the rest of the year, she took part in two eight person tag team matches, working the first as Tomotsu-chan and the second as Apple Tomotsu, the name coming from one of her tag team partners, Apple Miyuki. On January 23, 2005, Nakagawa made her first appearance under her real name, wrestling in a tag team match, where she and Yuu Yamagata were defeated by Michinoku and Ryota Chikuzen. This date is listed as her official debut by not only the promotions she works for, but also by Nakagawa herself. The following year Nakagawa adopted the ring name Tomo Michinoku and aligned herself with Taka, with whom she would go on to win her first championship on June 4, 2006, when the two defeated Makoto Oishi and Shiori Asahi for the FMW/WEW Hardcore Tag Team Championship. They would hold the title for 34 days, before losing it to the team of Apple Miyuki and Yoshiya. The following December, Nakagawa dropped the Tomo Michinoku ring name and returned to wrestling under her real name. On April 15, 2007, Nakagawa announced that she was leaving Kaientai Dojo to become a freelancer on the Japanese independent circuit.
Shortly after her departure from Kaientai Dojo, Nakagawa joined Mariko Yoshida’s Ibuki promotion, where she also underwent further training under Yoshida. The following year Nakagawa became a true freelancer, when she left Ibuki and started working for promotions such as NEO Japan Ladies Pro Wrestling, Oz Academy and Pro Wrestling Wave. Nakagawa remains affiliated with Ibuki’s production company, S Ovation, through which she, Hiroyo Matsumoto and Misaki Ohata have produced their own independent events under the banner of “Joshi 4 Hope”.
Nakagawa made her debut for all-female promotion Oz Academy on March 9, 2008, in a tag team match, where she and Manami Toyota were defeated by Akino and Ran Yu-Yu. Shortly afterwards Nakagawa joined Mayumi Ozaki’s villainous Ozaki-gun, before jumping to Aja Kong’s Jungle Jack 21 stable on August 2, 2009. On April 10, 2011, Nakagawa and her Jungle Jack 21 stablemate and fellow Ibuki alum Hiroyo Matsumoto defeated Chikayo Nagashima and Sonoko Kato to win the Oz Academy Tag Team Championship. After a 77 day long reign, the duo lost the title to Carlos Amano and Manami Toyota. The following September, the team was broken up, when Matsumoto jumped to Ozaki-gun and started a storyline rivalry with her former stablemates. In December 2012, Matsumoto returned to Jungle Jack 21, reforming her tag team with Nakagawa. On March 10, 2013, Nakagawa and Matsumoto defeated Mayumi Ozaki and Yumi Ohka to win the Oz Academy Tag Team Championship for the second time. They lost the title to Aja Kong and Hikaru Shida in their first defense on April 24. Nakagawa and Matsumoto regained the title from Kong and Shida on August 11. After holding the title for over a year, Nakagawa and Matsumoto vacated the title on August 31, 2014, after Matsumoto was sidelined with a knee injury.
In March 2008, Nakagawa, Atsuko Emoto and Kyoko Kimura formed the villainous Revolucion Amandla stable in NEO Japan Ladies Pro Wrestling. The stable feuded with NEO’s top wrestlers, most notably Ayumi Kurihara, Etsuko Mita and Yoshiko Tamura, with Nakagawa and Kimura unsuccessfully challenging Kurihara and Tamura for the NEO Tag Team Championship Shopping Online. In October 2009, Nakagawa made her first tour of Mexico with International Wrestling Revolution Group (IWRG) as a member of Revolucion Amandla. She returned to the promotion on June 3, 2010, defeating A☆YU☆MI. This built to a match two days later at an event held by the Alianza Universal de Lucha Libre (AULL) promotion, where Nakagawa unsuccessfully challenged A☆YU☆MI for her X–LAW Women’s Championship.
Nakagawa originally made her debut for Pro Wrestling Wave on September 3, 2007, but did not start working regularly for the promotion until May 2010. On April 30, 2012, Nakagawa and Gami defeated Hanako Nakamori and Misaki Ohata of the villainous Black Dahlia stable to become “interim” Wave Tag Team Champions. Following the retirement of Toshie Uematsu, one half of the previous champions, Nakagawa and Gami defeated Ayumi Kurihara and Kana on June 17 to become the official Wave Tag Team Champions. Nakagawa and Gami lost the title to Misaki Ohata and Tsukasa Fujimoto on November 27 in their third defense. Nakagawa and Gami regained the Wave Tag Team Championship from Hikaru Shida and Yumi Ohka on August 15, 2013. However, their second reign lasted only ten days, before they lost the title to Cherry and Shuu Shibutani.
On August 30, 2010, Nakagawa made her debut for Smash at Smash.7, teaming with Toshie Uematsu in a tag team match, where they were defeated by Lin Byron and Syuri. On July 15, 2011, at Smash.19, Nakagawa entered a tournament to determine the first ever Smash Diva Champion, but was eliminated in her opening round match by Serena. After the finals of the tournament on September 8 at Smash.21, Nakagawa entered the ring and, along with Makoto, Ray and Syuri, challenged the inaugural champion, Kana. On October 28 at Smash.22, Nakagawa defeated Makoto, Ray and Syuri in a four-way match, while also scoring all three eliminations, to become the number one contender to the Smash Diva Championship. On November 24 at Smash.23, Nakagawa defeated Kana to become the second Smash Diva Champion. On January 19, 2012, at We Are Smash, Nakagawa lost the title back to Kana in her first defense. On March 14, Nakagawa took part in Smash’s final event, before the promotion ceased its operations, teaming with Josh O’Brien and Yoshiaki Yago in a six-person tag team match, where they defeated Hisamaru Tajima, Jiro Kuroshio and Makoto.
On May 8, 2011, Nakagawa made her debut for the World Wonder Ring Stardom promotion, defeating Eri Susa. Nakagawa made two more appearances for the promotion during the rest of the year, defeating Saki Kashima on September 10 and teaming with Kashima in a tag team match, where they were defeated by Arisa Hoshiki and Mayu Iwatani on November 12. Nakagawa returned to Stardom on March 11, 2012, when she defeated Iwatani in a singles match. On January 14, 2013, Nakagawa led “Team Shimmer”, which also included Kellie Skater and Portia Perez, to the finals of the Artist of Stardom Championship tournament, where they were, however, defeated by Kawasaki Katsushika Saikyou Densetsu Plus One (Act Yasukawa, Natsuki☆Taiyo and Saki Kashima).
On May 24, 2012, Nakagawa made her debut for Wrestling New Classic (WNC), the follow-up promotion to Smash, teaming with Josh O’Brien and Yoshiaki Yago in a six-person tag team match, where they were defeated by Lin Byron, Último Dragón and Yusuke Kodama.
On August 3, 2013, Nakagawa took part in the retirement match of her longtime rival Ayumi Kurihara; a six-woman tag team match, where she, Aja Kong and Gami were defeated by Kurihara, Akino and Mika Iida.
On June 4, 2014, after unsuccessfully challenging Akino for the Oz Academy Openweight Championship, Nakagawa announced she would be retiring from professional wrestling on December 4. Following the announcement, Nakagawa reformed Revolucion Amandla with Kyoko Kimura. On October 15, the two defeated Sakuragohan (Kyusei Sakura Hirota and Mika Iida) in the finals to win the 2014 Dual Shock Wave tournament and become the new Wave Tag Team Champions. They lost the title to Las Aventureras (Ayako Hamada and Yuu Yamagata) in their first defense on October 29. On November 2, Nakagawa received one final shot at the Oz Academy Openweight Championship, but was defeated by the defending champion, Tsubasa Kuragaki. On December 4, Oz Academy produced Nakagawa’s Japanese retirement event, which saw Nakagawa, Aja Kong and Akino, the reunited Jungle Jack 21 (accompanied by the retired Ran Yu-Yu and the injured Hiroyo Matsumoto), defeat Dynamite Kansai, Kyoko Kimura and Mayumi Ozaki in the main event. Nakagawa was set to wrestle another retirement match abroad.
On April 10, 2010, Nakagawa made her American debut for the Shimmer Women Athletes promotion in a losing effort against Ayumi Kurihara on Volume 29. Later that same day on Volume 30, Nakagawa teamed with Daizee Haze to defeat the team of Jamilia Craft and Misaki Ohata. At the following day’s tapings of Volumes 31 and 32, Nakagawa was defeated by Mercedes Martinez and picked up a win over Jessie McKay, respectively. Nakagawa returned to Shimmer five months later on September 11, when she was defeated by Ayako Hamada and Cheerleader Melissa at the tapings of Volumes 33 and 34. The following day on Volume 35, Nakagawa and Daizee Haze continued their tag team win streak by defeating Pretty Bitchin’ (Ariel and Nikki Roxx). On March 26, 2011, Nakagawa returned for her third visit with Shimmer, losing to LuFisto on Volume 37 and defeating Jessica James on Volume 38. The following day on Volume 39, Nakagawa and Haze defeated Jamilia Craft and Mia Yim in a tag team match and were as a result granted a shot at the Shimmer Tag Team Championship. Later that same day on Volume 40, Nakagawa and Haze defeated the Seven Star Sisters (Hiroyo Matsumoto and Misaki Ohata) to become the fourth Shimmer Tag Team Champions. Nakagawa and Haze made their first title defense on April 2 at Ring of Honor’s Honor Takes Center Stage pay-per-view, defeating Ayumi Kurihara and Hiroyo Matsumoto. On October 1 at Shimmer’s Volume 41, Nakagawa and Haze lost the Shimmer Tag Team Championship to Ayako Hamada and Ayumi Kurihara in their second defense. Later that same day on Volume 42, Nakagawa picked up her biggest singles victory in Shimmer by pinning former Shimmer Champion MsChif to win a four-way match, which also included Kellie Skater and LuFisto. The following day on Volume 43, Nakagawa was defeated by MsChif in a singles match. Nakagawa was forced to miss Shimmer’s March 2012 tapings due to having prior commitments with Pro Wrestling Wave.
Nakagawa returned to Shimmer on October 27, 2012, defeating Davina Rose as part of Volume 49. Later that same night on Volume 50, Nakagawa was defeated by Athena. The following night on Volume 51, Nakagawa defeated Veda Scott in a singles match. Later that same night on Volume 52, Nakagawa, in her final match of the weekend, teamed with Kellie Skater as the “Global Green Gangsters” (3G) in a tag team match, where they defeated Christina Von Eerie and MsChif. On April 6, 2013, at the Volume 53 internet pay-per-view (iPPV), the Global Green Gangsters unsuccessfully challenged the Canadian NINJAs (Nicole Matthews and Portia Perez) for the Shimmer Tag Team Championship in a four-way match, which also included the teams of Kana and Lufisto, and Made in Sin (Allysin Kay and Taylor Made). A week later on April 13 at the tapings of Volume 54, Nakagawa and Skater defeated the Canadian NINJAs in another title match, however, the Shimmer Tag Team Championship did not change hands due to the match ending in a countout. Later that same day on Volume 55, Nakagawa and Skater continued chasing the Canadian NINJAs and the Shimmer Tag Team Championship, but, despite scoring a win over Regeneration X (Allison Danger and Leva Bates), were denied a rematch with the reigning champions. However, the following day, after Nakagawa and Perez wrestled to a double disqualification on Volume 56, following interference from both Skater and Matthews, the two teams were booked in one more title match against each other, contested under “No Disqualification, No Countout” rules. The match took place later that same day in the main event of Volume 57 and saw the Global Green Gangsters defeat the Canadian NINJAs to become the new Shimmer Tag Team Champions. Nakagawa returned to Shimmer on October 19 at Volume 58, where she and Skater made their first successful title defense against Kana and LuFisto. Later that same day on Volume 59, Nakagawa and Skater made their second successful defense against Made in Sin. The following day, Nakagawa and Skater made two more successful title defenses, defeating Nevaeh and Sassy Stephie on Volume 60 and Cherry Bomb and Kimber Lee on Volume 61. On October 25, Nakagawa made her debut for Shimmer’s sister promotion, Shine Wrestling, when she and Skater successfully defended the Shimmer Tag Team Championship against Valkyrie (Allysin Kay and Ivelisse). On April 5, 2014, at the Volume 62 iPPV, Nakagawa and Skater successfully defended their title against Madison Eagles and Nicole Matthews. A week later at Volume 64, Nakagawa and Skater made another successful title defense against Leon and Ray. Nakagawa and Skater made two more successful title defenses the following day, defeating Rhia O’Reilly and Saraya Knight on Volume 65 and Cheerleader Melissa and Mercedes Martinez on Volume 66.
After announcing her retirement, Nakagawa made a return to Shimmer in October 2014. On October 18 at Volume 68, she and Skater made yet another successful defense of the Shimmer Tag Team Championship against Kaori Yoneyama and Tsukasa Fujimoto. The following day, the Global Green Gangsters also successfully defended their title against the team of Mayumi Ozaki and Saraya Knight on Volume 69. Later that same day on Volume 70, Nakagawa was scheduled to challenge Nicole Matthews for the Shimmer Championship, but the match, as well as a following Shimmer Tag Team Championship match between 3G and the Canadian NINJAs, ended in a disqualification due to outside interference. Finally, Nakagawa and Skater teamed with Jessicka Havok and Madison Eagles to defeat Matthews, Portia Perez, Cherry Bomb and Kimber Lee in an eight-woman tag team match to end the weekend.
After her Japanese retirement, Nakagawa made one more trip to Shimmer for the final matches of her career, starting with Volume 71 on March 28, 2015, where she unsuccessfully challenged Nicole Matthews for the Shimmer Championship due to outside interference from Portia Perez. On April 3, Nakagawa made her final appearance for Shine Wrestling, when she and Skater wrestled Shine Tag Team Champions Cherry Bomb and Kimber Lee to a double countout in a title vs. title match, meaning that both teams retained their respective titles. This led to a rematch back in Shimmer on April 11 on Volume 72, where Nakagawa and Skater lost the Shimmer Tag Team Championship, ending their two-year reign. The following day on Volume 74, Nakagawa teamed with Skater, Hiroyo Matsumoto and Misaki Ohata in an eight-woman tag team match, where they were defeated by Aja Kong, Dynamite Kansai, Kyoko Kimura and Mayumi Ozaki. Nakagawa’s retirement match took place later that same day on Volume 75. Teaming with Skater, the two defeated the Canadian NINJAs, with Nakagawa pinning Shimmer Champion Nicole Matthews for the final win of her career. Despite her retirement, Nakagawa made an appearance at the October 11, 2015, Shimmer tapings, taking part in Portia Perez’s retirement match by managing Team Danger in the eight-woman tag team match against Team Perez.

William Brantley Aycock

William Brantley Aycock (October 24, 1915 – June 20, 2015) was an American educator who served as chancellor of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1957 until 1964 and was the retired Kenan Professor of Law at the UNC School of Law. He was born in Lucama, North Carolina in 1915.
A native of Lucama, North Carolina, Aycock served the University of North Carolina for nearly 40 years from his first faculty appointment in the School of Law in 1948 to his retirement as Kenan professor in 1985. He was named chancellor in 1957 and led the university in that capacity until 1964 Fashion Clothes Online.
A 1948 graduate of the UNC School of Law, Aycock was first in his class and editor-in-chief of the North Carolina Law Review. He also holds a master’s degree in history from UNC Fashion World, and a bachelor’s degree in education from North Carolina State University where he was president of the student body and a member of Phi Kappa Tau fraternity. Prior to entering law school, he served in the U.S. Army during World War II and attained the rank of colonel. He was awarded the Bronze Star, the Silver Star and the Legion of Merit.
Throughout his academic career, Aycock received many honors and awards. He was the first recipient of the UNC School of Law’s McCall Teaching Award, and eventually received it a total of five times. He was an honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa and a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He received the Thomas Jefferson Award from UNC, the Distinguished Alumnus Award and Lifetime Achievement Award from the UNC Law Alumni Association, the William R. Davie Award from the UNC Board of Trustees, the University Award from the UNC Board of Governors, and the Liberty Bell Award from the North Carolina Bar Association.
In 1990, as a tribute to his chancellorship, the department of family medicine’s building was named for Aycock. This honor was in keeping with his long-standing interest in the field of medicine, and his support of family medicine as a way to address the health-care needs of North Carolina’s rural citizens. The William B. Aycock professorship in his name was established by his many friends and is held as an endowment at the Medical Foundation of North Carolina, Inc. Aycock died after a fall on June 20, 2015 at the age of 99.
Aycock was a cousin of North Carolina Governor Charles Brantley Aycock and is best known to sports fans as the man who hired legendary basketball coach Dean Smith. He was chancellor when Frank McGuire resigned when faced with recruiting violations at the end of the 1960-61 season. McGuire decided to leave and coach Wilt Chamberlain and the Philadelphia Warriors, before later moving to the University of South Carolina. When Aycock hired Smith, he told the 30-year-old coach that wins and losses did not count as much as running a clean program and representing the university well. This charge is somewhat ironic, as Smith led the Tar Heels to 879 wins over 36 years.

Christopher Browning

Christopher Browning (Christopher Robert Browning; * 22. Mai 1944) ist ein US-amerikanischer Historiker.

Er studierte Geschichte an der University of Wisconsin–Madison Bogner Outlet. 1999 wurde er als Professor für Geschichte an die University of North Carolina berufen. Bedeutende Rezeption erlangte sein Buch Ordinary Men (deutsch Ganz normale Männer), das Daniel Jonah Goldhagen als Ausgangspunkt für sein umstrittenes Buch Hitlers willige Vollstrecker diente.
Browning gilt als international renommierter Holocaustforscher, dessen Position im Spannungsfeld zwischen intentionalistischer und strukturalistischer Forschungsrichtung am ehesten mit der eines gemäßigten Strukturalisten zu beschreiben ist. So sieht er in seinem Werk The Origins of the Final Solution 2004 den Entscheidungsprozess zur Endlösung der Judenfrage in der gegenseitigen Durchdringung mehrerer Faktoren. Neben Hitlers obsessivem Antisemitismus spiele die ständige Radikalisierung des Vernichtungssystems, wie sie auch der deutsche Historiker Hans Mommsen beschreibt, eine wichtige Rolle. Schließlich beschleunigte nach Browning die zum Teil eigenmächtige Umsetzung judenfeindlicher Maßnahmen von unten die Vernichtungsdynamik. In Abgrenzung zu Martin Broszats Datierung des Holocaust auf das Frühjahr 1942 begründet Browning mit der Ausweitung der Massenerschießungen schon im Juni 1941 die These, dass Hitler im Sommer 1941 der konkreten Vorbereitung des Holocaust durch Himmler und Heydrich zustimmte und die dadurch ausgelösten Durchführungspläne im Oktober und November 1941 billigte.
In Ganz normale Männer beschreibt er die Taten des Reserve-Polizeibataillon 101 während des Holocausts. Diese Einheit war für das Erschießen von Juden, bzw. deren Gefangennahme, um sie in die Vernichtungslager abzutransportieren, verantwortlich. Dabei wurde diese Einheit im besetzten Polen eingesetzt. Der Autor des Buches, der die Ergebnisse des Experiments Stanley Milgrams einbezieht, kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Mitglieder der Einheit keine Dämonen oder fanatische Nazis waren, sondern normale mittelalte Männer, die aus der Arbeiterklasse Hamburgs stammten. Den Männern wurde gelegentlich die Wahl gelassen, auf die Ermordung der Juden zu verzichten, falls es ihnen unangenehm sei. Von 500 Mann wählten nur 15 diese Option. Browning schlussfolgert, dass die Männer der Einheit nicht aus Mordlust töteten Moderegeln, sondern aus dem Gefühl des Gruppenzwangs und Gehorsam heraus. Wie das Milgram Experiment zeige, seien die meisten Durchschnittsmenschen zu derartigen Taten fähig. Es müsse nur eine Autorität die Befehle geben. Ordinary Men erhielt allgemeine Anerkennung, wurde jedoch von Daniel Goldhagen stark kritisiert. Browning habe den starken Einfluss der deutschen Kultur auf den Holocaust missachtet. In einem Verriss in 1992er Ausgabe von The New Republic, nannte Goldhagen das Buch Ordinary Men ein unwissenschaftliches und wertloses Buch. Browning habe sich seine eigenen Beweise zurechtgezimmert. Goldhagens Buch Hitlers willige Vollstrecker (1996) sei auch als Antwort auf Ordinary Men zu verstehen gewesen.